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為何山東模具常常發作爆裂?模具生產如何防備?

刮刮乐2000 www.yfrmbf.com.cn 來源:    發布時間:2019-07-24 17:19:25    點擊:

  模具爆裂緣由剖析:
  Cause analysis of die burst:
  1.模具材質不好在后續加工中容易碎裂
  1. Mould material is not good and easy to crack in subsequent processing.
  2.熱處置:淬火回火工藝不當產生變形
  2. Thermal Disposal: Deformation due to improper quenching and tempering process
  3.模具研磨平面度不夠,產生撓曲變形
  3. The flatness of the grinding die is insufficient, resulting in flexural deformation.
  4.設計工藝:模具強度不夠,刀口間距太近,模具構造不合理,模板塊數不夠無墊板墊腳
  4. Design process: die strength is not enough, knife edge spacing is too close, die structure is unreasonable, the number of template blocks is not enough, no cushion plate cushion foot.
  5.線割處置不當:拉線線割,間隙不對,沒作清角
  5. Improper disposal of wire cutting: pulling wire cutting, wrong clearance, no angle clearance
  6.沖床設備的選用:沖床噸位,沖裁力不夠,調模下得太深
  6. Selection of punch equipment: tonnage of punch, insufficient punching force, too deep die adjustment
  7.脫料不順:消費前無退磁處置,無退料梢;消費中有斷針斷彈簧等卡料
  7. Unsmooth stripping: no demagnetization disposal before consumption, no stripping tip; broken needle, broken spring and other stuffing in consumption
  8.落料不順:組裝模時無漏屎,或滾堵屎,墊腳堵屎
  8. Dropping is not smooth: there is no leakage of feces when assembling moulds, or rolling and blocking feces, padding and blocking feces
  9.消費認識:疊片沖壓,定位不到位,沒運用吹氣槍,模板有裂紋仍繼續消費
  9. Consumption awareness: laminated stamping, inadequate positioning, no use of air guns, template cracks continue to consume
  模具爆裂如何防備:
  How to prevent die burst?
  1沖壓設備
  1 stamping equipment
  沖壓設備(如壓力機)的精度與剛性對沖模壽命的影響極為重要。沖壓設備的精度高、剛性好,沖模壽命大為進步。特別足小間隙或無間隙沖模、硬質合金沖模及精細沖模必需選擇精度高、剛性好的壓力機,否則,將會降低模具壽命,嚴重者還會損壞棋具。
  The accuracy and rigidity of stamping equipment (such as press) are very important to the life of stamping die. Stamping equipment has high precision and good rigidity, and die life has been greatly improved. Especially for small clearance or no clearance dies, carbide dies and fine dies, it is necessary to select a press with high precision and good rigidity. Otherwise, die life will be reduced and chess pieces will be damaged seriously.
  2模具設計
  2. Die Design
 ?。?)模具的導向機構精度。為進步模具壽命,必需依據工序性質和零件精度等請求,正確選擇導向方式和肯定導向機構的精度。
  (1) The precision of the guide mechanism of the die. In order to improve the service life of the die, it is necessary to select the correct guiding mode and confirm the accuracy of the guiding mechanism according to the requirements of the process nature and the accuracy of the parts.
山東模具
 ?。?)模具(凸、凹模)刃口幾何參數。凸、凹模的外形、配合間隙和圓角半徑不只對沖壓件成形有較大的影響,而且關于模具的磨損及壽命也影響很大。精度請求較高的,宜選較小的間隙值;反之則可恰當加大間隙,以進步模具壽命。
  (2) Geometric parameters of die edge (convex and concave die). The shape, fit clearance and fillet radius of convex and concave dies not only have a great influence on the forming of stamping parts, but also on the wear and life of dies. If the precision requirement is high, the smaller clearance value should be chosen; otherwise, the clearance can be increased appropriately to improve the service life of the die.
  3沖壓工藝
  3 Stamping Technology
 ?。?)沖壓零件的原資料。
  (1) Raw materials of stamping parts.
 ?、倬】贍懿捎貿逖構ひ招院玫腦柿?,以減少沖壓變形力;②沖壓前應嚴厲檢查原資料的牌號、厚度及外表質量等,并將原資料擦拭潔凈,必要時應肅清外表氧化物和銹跡;③依據沖壓工序和原資料品種,必要時可布置軟化處置和外表處置,以及選擇適宜的光滑劑和光滑工序。
  (1) The original materials with good stamping technology should be used as far as possible to reduce the stamping deformation force; (2) Before stamping, the grade, thickness and appearance quality of the original materials should be strictly checked, and the original materials should be wiped clean, and the surface oxides and rust should be removed if necessary; (3) According to the stamping process and the varieties of the original materials, softening points can be arranged when necessary. Placement and surface disposal, as well as the selection of appropriate smoothing agent and smooth process.
 ?。?)排樣與搭邊。
  (2) Layout and lapping.
  不合理的往復送料排樣法以及過小的搭邊值常?;嶁緯贍>嘸本縋ニ鴰蟯?、凹??猩?。必需依據零件的加工批量、質量請求和模具配合間隙,合理選擇排樣辦法和搭邊值,以進步模具壽命。
  Irrational reciprocating feeding layout method and too small lapping boundary value often lead to sharp wear or convex and concave die gnawing. In order to improve the service life of the die, the layout method and lapping boundary value must be reasonably selected according to the processing batch, quality requirement of the parts and the clearance of the die.
  4模具資料
  4 Mould Information
 ?、僮柿系腦擻瞇閱苡哂懈哂捕齲?8~64HRC)和高強度,并具有高的耐磨性和足夠的韌性,熱處置變形小,有一定的熱硬性;②工藝性能良好。
  The data should have high hardness (58 ~ 64HRC) and high strength, high wear resistance and enough toughness, small heat treatment deformation, and a certain degree of thermo-hardness; and the process performance is good.
  5熱加工工藝
  5 Hot Processing Technology
  模具的熱加工質量對模具的性能與運用壽命影響甚大。
  The hot working quality of the die has a great influence on the performance and service life of the die.
 ?。?)鍛造工藝。這是模具工作零件制造過程中的重要環節。應嚴厲控制鍛造溫度范圍,制定正確的加熱標準,采用正確的鍛造力法,以及鍛后緩冷或及時退火等。
  (1) Forging process. This is an important link in the manufacturing process of working parts of dies and moulds. The range of forging temperature should be strictly controlled, the correct heating standard should be formulated, the correct forging force method should be adopted, and the slow cooling or timely annealing after forging should be adopted.
 ?。?)準備熱處置。應視模具工作零件的資料和請求的不同分別采用退火、正火或調質等準備熱處置工藝,以改善組織,消弭鍛造毛坯的組織缺陷,改善加工工藝性。
  (2) Preparing for thermal treatment. In order to improve the structure, eliminate the structural defects of forging blank and improve the processing technology, annealing, normalizing or tempering should be adopted respectively according to the different information and requests of die working parts.
 ?。?)淬火與回火。這是模具熱處置中的關鍵環節。沖模淬火加熱時特別應留意避免氧化和脫碳,應嚴厲控制熱處置工藝標準,在條件允許的狀況下,可采用真空熱處置。淬火后應及時回火,并依據技術請求采用不同的回火工藝。
  (3) Quenching and tempering. This is the key link in the heat treatment of die. When the die is quenched and heated, special attention should be paid to avoiding oxidation and decarbonization. The standard of heat treatment process should be strictly controlled. Vacuum heat treatment can be adopted when conditions permit. After quenching, it should temper in time and adopt different tempering processes according to technical requirements.
 ?。?)消應力退火。關于精度請求高的模具,在磨削或電加工后還需經過消應力回火處置,有利于穩定模具精度,進步運用壽命。
  (4) Stress relief annealing. As for the mould with high precision requirement, after grinding or electro-machining, stress relief and tempering are needed, which is beneficial to stabilizing the precision of the mould and improving its service life.
  6加工外表質量
  6. Processing Appearance Quality
 ?、倌>吖ぷ髁慵庸す討斜匭璞苊餑ハ魃丈肆慵獗硐窒?,應嚴厲控制磨削工藝條件和工藝辦法(如砂輪硬度、粒度、冷卻液、進給量等參數);②加工過程中應避免模具工作零件外表留有刀痕。夾層、裂紋、撞擊傷痕等宏觀缺陷。這些缺陷的存在會惹起應力集中,成為斷裂的本源,形成模具早期失效;③采用磨削、研磨和拋光等精加工和精密加工,取得較小的外表粗糙度值,進步模具運用壽命。
  It is necessary to avoid the appearance of burned parts in the process of working parts of dies and moulds, strictly control the grinding process conditions and methods (such as grinding wheel hardness, particle size, coolant, feed rate and other parameters); and avoid the knife marks on the surface of working parts of dies and moulds in the process of processing. Macroscopic defects such as interlayer, crack, impact scar, etc. The existence of these defects will cause stress concentration, become the source of fracture, and form the early failure of the die; Third, the use of grinding, grinding and polishing and other finishing and precision processing, to achieve a smaller surface roughness value, improve the service life of the die.
  7外表強化處置
  7 Apparently Intensified Disposal
  為進步模具性能和運用壽命,模具工作零件外表強化處置應用越來越廣。常用的表而強化處置辦法有:液體碳氮共滲、離子滲氮、滲硼、滲釩和電火花強化,以及化學氣相堆積法(CVD)、物理氣相堆積法(PVD)和在鹽浴中向工件外表浸鍍碳化物法(TD)等。
  In order to improve the performance and service life of the die, the application of strengthening the appearance of the working parts of the die is more and more widespread. Commonly used surface strengthening treatment methods include liquid carbonitriding, ion nitriding, boronizing, vanadizing and spark strengthening, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), physical vapor deposition (PVD) and carbide dipping into the workpiece surface in salt bath (TD).
  8線切割蛻變層的控制
  Control of Metamorphic Layer in Wire Cutting
  沖模刃口多采用線切割加工。由于線切割加工的熱效應和電解作用,使模具加工外表產生一定厚度的蛻變層,形成外表硬度降低,呈現顯微裂紋等,致使線切割加工的沖模易發作早期磨損,直接影響模具沖裁間隙的堅持及刃口容易崩刃,縮短模具運用壽命。因而,在線切割加工中應選擇合理的電規準,盡量減少蛻變層深度。
  The cutting edge of punching die is mostly processed by wire cutting. Because of the thermal effect and electrolysis effect of WEDM, a certain thickness of metamorphic layer is produced on the surface of the die, which results in the decrease of the surface hardness and the appearance of micro-cracks. The early wear of the die in WEDM is prone to occur, which directly affects the maintenance of the blanking clearance of the die and the easy collapse of the edge, and shortens the service life of the die. 。 Therefore, reasonable electrical regulation should be selected in WEDM to minimize the depth of metamorphic layer.
  9正確運用和合理維護
  9 Correct Use and Reasonable Maintenance
  為了維護正常消費,進步沖壓件質量,降低本錢,延長沖模壽命,必需正確運用和合理維護模具,嚴厲執行沖模“三檢查”制度(運用前檢查,運用過程中檢查與運用后檢查),并做好沖模與維護檢修工作。
  In order to maintain normal consumption, improve stamping quality, reduce cost and prolong die life, it is necessary to correctly use and reasonably maintain the die, strictly implement the "three inspection" system of die (pre-operation inspection, inspection and post-operation inspection) and do a good job in die maintenance and repair.
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