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模具熱處理中產生缺陷的原因及預防

刮刮乐2000 www.yfrmbf.com.cn 來源:    發布時間:2019-06-05 17:39:17    點擊:

  模具熱處理中產生缺陷的原因及預防
  Causes and Prevention of Defects in Die Heat Treatment
  模具外表有軟點
  There are soft spots on the exterior of the die
  模具熱處置后外表有軟點,將影響模具的耐磨性、減少模具的運用壽命。
  There are soft spots on the surface of the die after heat treatment, which will affect the wear resistance of the die and reduce the service life of the die.
  產生緣由:
  Reasons for this:
  模具在熱處置前外表有氧化皮、銹斑及部分脫碳。
  Before heat treatment, there are oxide scales, rust spots and partial decarbonization on the surface of the die.
  模具淬火加熱后,冷卻淬火介質選擇不當,淬火介質中雜質過多或老化。
  After quenching and heating of the die, the selection of quenching medium is inappropriate, and the impurities in quenching medium are excessive or aging.
  預防措施:
  Preventive measures:
  模具熱處置前應去除氧化皮、銹斑,在淬火加熱時恰當維護模具外表,應盡量采用真空電爐、鹽浴爐和維護氛圍爐中加熱。
  The oxide scale and rust spots should be removed before the heat treatment of the die. The appearance of the die should be properly maintained during quenching heating. Vacuum electric furnace, salt bath furnace and maintenance atmosphere furnace should be adopted as far as possible.
  模具淬火加熱后冷卻時,應選擇適宜的冷卻介質,對長期運用的冷卻介質要經常停止過濾,或定期改換。
  When the die is cooled after quenching and heating, the suitable cooling medium should be selected. The long-term used cooling medium should be stopped filtering or changed regularly.
  模具熱處置前組織不佳
  Poor structure of die before heat treatment
  模具然后球化組織粗大不均、球化不完善,組織有網狀、帶狀和鏈狀碳化物,這將使模具在淬火后易產生裂紋,形成模具報廢。
  The final spheroidizing structure of the die is uneven and imperfect, and there are network, band and chain carbides in the structure. This will make the die easy to crack after quenching and form the scrap of the die.
  山東模具
  Shandong Mould
  產生緣由:
  Reasons for this:
  模具鋼資料原始組織存在嚴重碳化物偏析。
  Serious carbide segregation exists in the original structure of die steel.
  鍛造工藝不佳,如鍛造加熱溫渡過高、變形量小、停鍛溫度高、鍛后冷卻速度遲緩等,使鍛造組織粗大并有網狀、帶狀及鏈狀碳化物存在,使球化退火時難以消弭。
  Poor forging technology, such as excessive heating temperature, small deformation, high stop forging temperature and slow cooling rate after forging, makes the forging structure coarse and network, ribbon and chain carbides exist, which makes spheroidizing annealing difficult to eliminate.
  球化退火工藝不佳,如退火溫渡過高或過低,等溫退火時間短等,可形成球化退火組織不均或球化不良。
  Poor spheroidizing annealing process, such as too high or too low annealing temperature and short isothermal annealing time, can result in uneven microstructures or poor spheroidization of spheroidizing annealing.
  預防措施:
  Preventive measures:
  普通應依據模具的工作條件、消費批量及資料自身的強韌化性能,盡量選擇質量好的模具鋼資料。
  In general, according to the working conditions of the die, the consumption batch and the strength and toughness of the data itself, the die steel materials with good quality should be selected as far as possible.
  改良鍛造工藝或采用正火準備熱處置,來消弭原資料中網狀和鏈狀碳化物及碳化物的不平均性。
  Improvement of forging process or normalizing preparation for heat treatment to eliminate the unevenness of network and chain carbides and carbides in the original data.
  對無法停止鍛造的碳化物偏析嚴重的高碳模具鋼可停止固溶細化熱處置。
  For high carbon die steels with severe carbide segregation which can not stop forging, solid solution refining and heat treatment can be stopped.
  對鍛造后的模坯制定正確的球化退火工藝標準,可采用調質熱處置和快速勻細球化退火工。
  The proper standard of spheroidizing annealing process for forged billet can be established by heat treatment with quenching and tempering and rapid homogenizing spheroidizing annealing.
  合理裝爐,保證爐內模坯溫度的平均性。
  Reasonable charging ensures the average temperature of the billet in the furnace.
  模具產生淬火裂紋
  Quenching Cracks in Dies
  模具在淬火后產生裂紋是模具熱處置過程中的比較大缺陷,將使加工好的模具報廢,使消費和經濟形成很大損失。
                                    山東模具
  Cracks in quenched dies are the biggest defects in the process of heat treatment of dies, which will make the processed dies scrapped and cause great losses in consumption and economy.
  產生的緣由:
  Reasons for this:
  模具資料存在嚴重的網狀碳化物偏析。
  Serious segregation of reticulated carbides exists in die data.
  模具中存在有機械加工或冷塑變形應力。
  There are mechanical processing or cold plastic deformation stresses in the die.
  模具熱處置操作不當(加熱或冷卻過快、淬火冷卻介質選擇不當、冷卻溫渡過低、冷卻時間過長等)。
  Improper heat treatment operation of die (too fast heating or cooling, improper selection of quenching cooling medium, too low cooling temperature, too long cooling time, etc.).
  模具外形復雜、厚薄不均、帶尖角和螺紋孔等,使熱應力和組織應力過大。
  The complex shape, uneven thickness, sharp angle and threaded hole of the die make the thermal stress and organizational stress too large.
  模具淬火加熱溫渡過高產生過熱或過燒。
  Overheating or over-burning occurs when the quenching heating temperature of the die is too high.
  模具淬火后回火不及時或回火保溫時間缺乏。
  Tempering is not timely after quenching or lack of tempering holding time.
  模具返修淬火加熱時,未經中間退火而再次加熱淬火。
  When the die is repaired and quenched, it is reheated and quenched again without intermediate annealing.
  模具熱處置的,磨削工藝不當。
  The grinding process is improper for the heat treatment of the die.
  模具熱處置后電火花加工時,硬化層中存在有高的拉伸應力和顯微裂紋。
  There are high tensile stress and micro-cracks in the hardened layer during EDM after thermal treatment of the die.
  預防措施:
  Preventive measures:
  嚴厲控制模具原資料的內在質量
  Strictly Control the Internal Quality of the Original Materials of Dies and Moulds
  改良鍛造和球化退火工藝,消弭網狀、帶狀、鏈狀碳化物,改善球化組織的平均性。、
  Improve forging and spheroidizing annealing process, eliminate network, band and chain carbides, improve the average of spheroidizing structure. ,
  在機械加工后或冷塑變形后的模具應停止去應力退火(>600℃)后再停止加熱淬火。
  After mechanical processing or cold plastic deformation, the die should stop stress relief annealing (> 600 C) and then stop heating and quenching.
  對外形復雜的模具應采用石棉梗塞螺紋孔,包扎風險截面和薄壁處,并采用分級淬火或等溫淬火。
  Asbestos blocked threaded holes should be used to bind the risky section and thin wall of the complex die, and graded quenching or isothermal quenching should be adopted.
  返修或創新模具時需停止退火或高溫回火。
  Annealing or high temperature tempering should be stopped when repairing or innovating dies.
  模具在淬火加熱時應采取預熱,冷卻時采取預冷措施,并選擇適宜淬火介質。
  The die should be preheated during quenching and heating, and pre-cooled during cooling, and suitable quenching medium should be selected.
  應嚴厲控制淬火加熱溫度和時間,避免模具過熱和過燒。
  Temperature and time of quenching heating should be strictly controlled to avoid over-heating and over-burning of dies.
  模具淬火后應及時回火,保溫時間要充沛,高合金復雜模具應回火2-3次。
  After quenching, the die should be tempered in time, the holding time should be plentiful, and the high alloy complex die should be tempered 2-3 times.
  Shandong Mould
  選擇正確的磨削工藝和適宜的砂輪。
  Choose the right grinding technology and suitable grinding wheel.
  改良模具電火花加工工藝,并停止去應力回火。
  Improve the die EDM process and stop stress relief tempering.
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