關于山東鋁合金壓鑄粘模的那些東西，壓鑄粘模缺陷在實際生產中十分常見，直接影響產品的外觀。如果嚴重，會導致鑄件表面剝落、缺肉、應變和裂紋，特別是對有密封要求的鑄件。粘模缺陷的實質是壓鑄合金與鋼模具結合在一起，鑄件材料粘在模具表面。在壓鑄過程中，金屬液進入模具型腔，會對模具表面產生強烈的物理沖擊，也會產生化學腐蝕。金屬液對模具的物理化學作用會使模具表面產生小凹坑。每次注射都會引起模具表面的變化，模具表面的小凹坑會逐漸變大。隨著時間的推移，凹坑會達到一定程度，使液態鋁進入并與鋼模結合。在模具表面會有一層致密的氧化層。當氧化層斷裂并開始滲鋁時，一種金屬間化合物Al Fe Si開始形成。這些相以擴展的方式成長為鋼，這種擴散受時間和溫度的控制。此時出現粘鋁缺陷。下面從四個方面分析粘鋁因素及解決辦法。
For those things of die casting die for aluminium alloy, the defect of die casting die is very common in actual production, which directly affects the appearance of products. If it is serious, it will lead to surface peeling, lack of meat, strain and crack, especially for the casting with sealing requirements. The essence of the sticking defect is that the die casting alloy is combined with the steel die, and the casting material is adhered to the surface of the die. In the process of die casting, the metal liquid entering the die cavity will have a strong physical impact on the surface of the die and also produce chemical corrosion. The physical and chemical action of liquid metal on the die will cause small pits on the surface of the die. Each injection will cause changes in the surface of the die, and the small pits on the surface of the die will gradually become larger. With the passage of time, the pit will reach a certain extent, so that liquid aluminium can enter and bond with the steel die. There will be a dense oxide layer on the surface of the die. When the oxide layer breaks and aluminizing begins, an intermetallic compound, Al-Fe-Si, begins to form. These phases grow into steel in an expanding manner, and this diffusion is controlled by time and temperature. At this time, sticky aluminium defect appears. The following four aspects are analyzed for the factors of sticking aluminium and the solutions.
1. Mould and Surface Coating
Adhesive aluminium is a complex process of mechanical wear and chemical reaction for the die. There are many damages on the surface of the die. If it is serious, it will lead to the failure of the die. Dies need to use good materials, reasonable surface treatment, can effectively reduce the adhesion of aluminum.
2. Mould material
對于鋁合金壓鑄模具鋼應具有:1)優良的高溫強度和韌性;2)具有良好的高溫耐磨性和熱疲勞性能;3)良好的熱處理和可加工性。如表1所示，常用的模具鋼包括中國制造的4Cr5Mo Si V鋼、瑞典yishengbai的8407鋼、日本的SKD61鋼和美國的H13鋼。模具制造商應根據實際生產需要選擇合適的模具材料。
For aluminium alloy die casting die steel, it should have: 1) excellent high temperature strength and toughness; 2) good high temperature wear resistance and thermal fatigue performance; 3) good heat treatment and machinability. As shown in Table 1, the commonly used die steels include 4Cr5Mo Si V steel made in China, 8407 steel made in Yishengbai, Sweden, SKD61 steel made in Japan and H13 steel made in the United States. The mould manufacturer should select the appropriate die material according to the actual production needs.
3. Hardness of Die Surface
The surface hardness of the die is not enough and the wear resistance is poor. Thermal fatigue failure, cracks and pitting corrosion will occur in the die, and then bonded aluminium will occur. If the surface hardness of the die is too high, brittle cracking will occur in the die. Therefore, it is necessary to choose a reasonable die surface hardness. For example, the optimum hardness of H13 steel after quenching is 44-48 hrc, and then different structural parts are refined. In order to improve toughness and avoid early cracking, the hardness of large holes can be reduced appropriately. The failure of core material is mainly caused by bending deformation, and the failure of crack is relatively rare, which can reduce the toughness of core material and improve the hardness of core material. For large size aluminum alloy castings or dies with complex shape and structure, heat treatment process is very difficult, and the hardness can be reduced appropriately. On the contrary, the hardness of small and medium-sized aluminium alloy die-casting dies can be improved appropriately.
4. Surface roughness of die
The surface of the die should have reasonable roughness. Too much roughness will cause great damage to the die, but the smaller the roughness, the better to avoid excessive polishing of the die surface. The surface of the die can be sandblasted, oxidized and polished with fine sand paper, which is beneficial to the uniform distribution of the release agent, and also can prevent the bonding between mirror die casting alloy and the die surface, and make the die surface produce pinholes. The recommended surface roughness of the die is shown in Table 2.
表面涂層對模具的?；し淺Ｖ匾?。常用的處理方法有CVD涂層、PVD涂層、氧化、氮化和各種條件下的鹽浴處理。滲氮處理可能是模具處理中比較常用的處理方法。它對侵蝕也非常有效。然而，不當的處理可能會破壞耐熱開裂性能。氧化處理也是一種常用的處理方法。一次使用時稍微氧化模具。通常在空氣或純氧環境中加熱到450 - 550 ?,保持1-2h,模具表面產生1 - 10微米氧化層、氧化層主要由C、硅和鐵氧化物,研究已經證實,氧化層在模具有很大的?；ぷ饔?可以極大地抵抗腐蝕磨損。從一階段的研究結果來看，氧化層的產生和控制可能是未來模具表面處理的比較重要方向。然而，考慮到模具失效的原因是多方面的，在模具加固過程中很難用單一的表面處理來抵抗各種形式的失效，許多研究已經開始考慮設計復合涂層系統。
Surface coating is very important for mould protection. Common treatment methods include CVD coating, PVD coating, oxidation, nitriding and salt bath treatment under various conditions. Nitriding treatment may be the most commonly used treatment method in die treatment. It is also very effective for erosion. However, improper treatment may damage the thermal cracking resistance. Oxidation treatment is also a common treatment method. The mould is slightly oxidized for the first time. Usually heated in air or pure oxygen environment to 450-550?, and maintained for 1-2 hours, the surface of the die produces 1-10 micron oxide layer, which is mainly composed of C, silicon and iron oxides. Research has confirmed that the oxide layer has a great protective effect on the die and can greatly resist corrosion and wear. From the research results of the first stage, the generation and control of oxide layer may be the most important direction of surface treatment of die in the future. However, considering that the causes of die failure are various, it is difficult to use a single surface treatment to resist various forms of failure in the process of die reinforcement. Many studies have begun to consider the design of composite coating system.
After the die is bonded with aluminium, the traditional method is polishing with grinding wheel and asphalt, which is easy to cause die damage. Sodium hydroxide solution can also be used for cleaning treatment, the damage to the die is relatively small, but it is not easy to be thoroughly treated, and the price is slightly higher.
There are many factors that cause the defect of bonded aluminium. This paper analyses the causes of sticky aluminium from four aspects, and puts forward corresponding countermeasures, which have certain reference value for die casting industry.